The subtleties of designing houses from eco-friendly timber
Nowadays, the building materials market is incredibly rich and can offer consumers products with a wide variety of properties and characteristics. However, the most popular and in demand are still environmentally friendly products. These include the timber, from which very beautiful and cozy residential buildings are obtained. Today we will get acquainted with all the intricacies of designing such buildings, as well as learn about the features of the specified building material.
Timber dwellings are very popular and widespread today. Similar structures can be found on many streets. The demand for such building materials is explained by the fact that they have a lot of advantages, more than overlapping small disadvantages.
From environmentally friendly timber, you can build not only simple houses with one floor, but also more impressive dwellings with several floors. In addition, they can be made in any form, from standard to highly original and unusual. It all depends only on the idea of the designer and the personal preferences of the owners. It should also be noted that such materials differ in relatively affordable cost, which has a positive effect on their demand. There are several subtypes of timber. Each of the varieties of such material has its own distinctive features and method of application.
It should also be noted that even an inexperienced builder can easily cope with the construction of a log house - no special education or many years of practice will be needed here. That is why many consumers undertake to build houses from a bar with their own hands. If you adhere to technology and use quality materials, then the result is admired by users.
Particular attention must be paid to the development of a plan for such a dwelling. It is very important to take into account absolutely all the details of the future structure.
As a rule, experienced specialists develop plans for log dwellings.
If a decision is made to build a residential building from a material such as a bar, then you should figure out what the pros and cons it has.
First, let's take a look at the advantages of this material.
- First of all, attention should be paid to the pliability of the timber as a building material. That is why it is a pleasure to work with him. The construction of a log house rarely takes a lot of free time and effort.
- You can build a house from a bar with your own hands. To do this, you just need to adhere to simple instructions and choose the right building material.
- Buildings in a variety of architectural directions are easily obtained from such material. It can be either a simple or a very original structure with various decorative elements.
- Such constructions can boast of good strength characteristics.
- Timber houses are durable.
- An important advantage of such buildings is their environmental friendliness. A high-quality timber does not have a negative impact on human health either during construction work or after its completion.
- Such houses do not require mandatory interior decoration. They look harmonious and neat, even if you don't use finishing materials.
- Many consumers opt for timber because it has good thermal insulation properties. That is why such material is often used when building capital houses designed for all-season living. In winter, these buildings are warm and cozy, while in summer they remain pleasantly cool.
- The construction of a log house cannot be called expensive. The technology for the construction of such dwellings is one of the most affordable. Only the construction of frame housing will be cheaper (although this is not a fact).
- According to experts, there is no need to prepare an expensive foundation for a log house.
Unfortunately, houses made from eco-friendly materials are not perfect.
They have some disadvantages that are important to consider if you want to build a log house.
- The primary disadvantage of such constructions is their fire hazard. It's not a secret for anyone that any wooden structures are susceptible to light fire. Of course, a log house can be protected from such consequences by using special refractory agents. However, even with the use of such, the risk of fire will still remain, therefore, safety precautions should not be neglected.
- The timber is a building material that seriously "suffers" under the influence of external factors. These include increased levels of humidity, insects, and, of course, time. Under the influence of such influences, the timber can begin to dry out, rot or become a "tidbit" for wood parasites. However, here you can also use special antiseptic impregnations, which will extend the life of the building. It is also important to monitor the maximum tightness of the ends so that harmful moisture does not penetrate into them. Caring for a log house will protect it from negative external factors, however, many users attribute this feature to the disadvantages of these buildings.
As you can see, the advantages of log houses are much more than disadvantages. Of course, a lot depends on how competently the construction was built.
Planning options and drawings
As mentioned earlier, you can build a house of absolutely any modification from a bar. It can be not only simple, but also an intricate option with several floors. Let us consider in detail several interesting ready-made projects of similar erections of different areas and layouts.
A very neat house 4 by 6 m in 2 floors can be erected from a bar.
So, on the first floor it will be possible to arrange the following rooms:
- small hall of 4.04 sq. m, in which you should place the stairs leading to the 2nd floor;
- living room of 11 sq. m, which on the first floor will be the largest room (the exit to it will follow from the hall);
- in the corner of the first floor, at the intersection of the living room and the hall, a compact kitchen of 6.65 sq. m.
A bathroom in such a dwelling can be located both on the first and second floors. It all depends on the wishes of the owners. As for the 2nd floor, here it is worth placing one bedroom of 16.88 sq. m.
A similar construction can be used as a small country house. Equip it with a high gable roof, trimmed with dark roofing material. Leave the outside of the wall unfinished (it is enough to treat the timber with protective impregnations). The lower part of the house can be supplemented with brickwork. Small wooden steps will look organic at the entrance. The result is a discreet but very cozy structure.
Fans of more original and solid buildings will like another project of a log house with an area of 7x8. A similar construction can also have two spacious floors with all the necessary rooms.
First, let's consider what can be placed on the first floor of such a dwelling:
- at the entrance to the house, a neat porch with an area of 4.79 square meters should be installed. m;
- right after it in the house it is worth placing a rectangular elongated hall of 7.12 sq.m (a small staircase leading to the 2nd floor will find its place near the extreme wall of the hall);
- on the right side of the hall there will be enough space for the kitchen (10.24 sq. m) and a more spacious living room (16, 42 sq. m), in which bay windows will look organic;
- as a result, there will be one free corner on the ground floor, located right in front of the hall, which should be reserved for a bathroom (3.42 sq. m).
As for the design of the second floor, here you should allocate an area for rooms such as:
- a bedroom above the living room on the 1st floor (there is no need to make a bay window in the bedroom - it should be simple square with an area of 14.04 sq. m);
- on the right side of the first bedroom, place the second (10.24 sq. m), which will repeat the shape of the kitchen on the 1st floor with a bay window;
- opposite these two rooms there will be a free elongated space - a hall, where there will be an exit to the stairs.
Such a log house will look spectacular if you supplement it with a gable roof with a dark roof, and equip the bay window bases with roofs with several edges. Complete the lower part of the building with stone framing, and build a pitched canopy on high wooden supports above the entrance steps.
A very cozy and hospitable house with dimensions of 7x9 can be erected from a bar. On an area of 122 sq. m will be able to successfully accommodate two fairly spacious floors with a terrace and a standard set of rooms.
So let's take a look at the first floor plan:
- just behind a small terrace of 10 sq. m, an entrance hall should be located, which will separate the two corner rooms of the house - a furnace (4.3 sq. m) and a bedroom (10.6 sq. m);
- from the listed premises, a spacious living room with a bay window of 13.3 square meters should be separated by a wall. m, a bathroom of 15 sq. m and a hall of 3.9 sq. m with a staircase (which is a continuation of the hallway);
- the remaining space (behind the wall from the hall and living room) should be divided into 2 separate rooms - a corner kitchen (8.1 sq. m) and a dining room (10.6 sq. m).
As for the second floor, here the plan will be as follows:
- the staircase from the first floor in this case will go into the hall (5.8 sq. m), which turns into an elongated living room with a bay window, as on the first floor (13.2 sq. m);
- on both sides of the hall and living room should be located: on the right side - a bathroom in the corner (4.3 sq. m), and behind it a bedroom (14.3 sq. m), on the left side - two more bedrooms (8.1 sq. m, 10.6 sq. m), separated by a partition.
Such a cozy log house will look organic if it is supplemented with a gable roof of a dark chocolate shade, and the bay window components are finished with a roof with several edges (4-5). Above the terrace, it is worth mounting a 3-pitched canopy, decorated with the same roofing material as on the roof. The lower part of such a construction should be decorated with brick or masonry, which will dilute the monotonous shades of the timber, coupled with a contrasting roof. At the entrance to the terrace, simple wooden steps and railings of the same material should be installed.
From a bar, you can build a cozy 8x8 house with one floor and a total area of 64 sq. m. The entrance to such a structure should be located near the corner and supplemented with wooden steps with fences and support posts under the roof.
In the conditions of such a dwelling, rooms can be arranged as follows:
- equip a hall that will conditionally divide the house into 2 halves;
- on the right, organize the nursery and separate it with a partition from the spacious living room opposite;
- glory arrange another bedroom, and opposite it place the kitchen;
- the bathroom is best organized between the nursery and the bedroom.
Such a dwelling will look quite simple and inconspicuous. To slightly dilute the monotony of timber construction, you should turn to the contrasting dark red roof on the gable roof.
Windows in the house can be installed both wooden and plastic.
A one-storey house from a bar can be built with dimensions 9x9.Such a construction can have a simple square shape and an addition in the form of a small terrace with an area of 12 sq. m.
In such a dwelling, you can equip:
- a small entrance hall (6 sq. m.) immediately behind the terrace;
- an entrance hall in such a house will lead to a hall (8 sq. m);
- the next room behind the hall in such a house will be a bathroom (4 sq. m);
- the space from the hallway to the bathroom will conditionally divide the house into two halves: on the left, you should organize 3 divided bedrooms of 9 sq. m each, and on the right - a spacious living room combined with a kitchen (24 sq. m).
Such a spacious house should be trimmed with cream siding panels, and the gable roof should be covered with burgundy roll material. It is advisable to use windows with frames, the color of which differs by a couple of tones from the wall cladding. The lower "belt" of the building should be finished with decorative brickwork of a dense cherry hue (to match the roof). It is better to equip the terrace with light wooden steps and the same fences / support beams.
The optimal area of a modern private residential building is 100 sq. m. Buildings of this size are perfect not only for permanent residence, but also for arranging a spacious garage. For example, a neat two-story log house of 96 sq. m and a garage of 50 sq. m.
The following should be placed on the first floor of the said house:
- a small entrance hall of 2.6 sq. m, hall 3.7 sq. m;
- to the left of the hallway / hallway, a toilet (2.8 sq. m) and a separate bathroom (3.6 sq. m) should be located;
- on the left there is a free space for cooking (8.9 sq. m);
- the indicated areas should be completed with a spacious living room (set the stairs to the 2nd floor behind upholstered furniture), combined with a dining area (34.8 sq. m).
On the ground floor, you can also allocate a free corner for placing a boiler room.
As for the second floor of such a dwelling, here they will find their places:
- a small hall, to which a staircase leads from the 1st floor (5.2 sq. m);
- to the left of the hall, build a study or a nursery (8 sq. m), and on the right, duplicate a similar space;
- Organize a bathroom (8.7 sq. M) in the right corner of the second floor;
- In the far left corner of the floor, place a bedroom of 14 sq. m.
On such an area, you can build a small balcony with an exit from the study (4.9 sq. M). In such a dwelling there is the possibility of making a full-fledged covered garage in the backyard of about 50 sq. m.
Such a log house can be left without finishing or supplemented with siding. Complement the balcony on the second floor with a dark wrought-iron railing, and lay dark blue tiles on the gable roof. The corner pieces of the house and the lower part of the house should be supplemented with masonry.
How to build?
The timber is a very pliable and unpretentious material, which is easy and simple to work with. That is why the construction of log houses is a fairly simple and straightforward process that even a beginner in construction business can handle. It is only important to adhere to the simple step-by-step instructions and be responsible for each of the stages of work.
Let's consider in detail how you can build a high-quality and reliable log house yourself.
The first step is to build a good foundation.
There are several main types of such buildings.
- There are columnar, strip and monolithic options for foundations. The simplest is the columnar one (of course, the choice of the optimal foundation option must be chosen based on the type of soil on the site). It is made from asbestos-cement pipes. These parts are inserted into pre-drilled holes.
- If the columnar foundation is suitable for your site, then you need to take into account the fact that it has one drawback - there are no connections between the pillars in such a structure. That is why experts recommend choosing its pile counterpart - in it, the piles are connected thanks to a reinforced concrete slab.
- The most common is the tape type foundation. It can be performed in a wide variety of variations. For impressive loads, it is customary to use bases with the same cross-section, and for small loads, a base of small deepening, which is inexpensive, but is not inferior in reliability.
- The slab foundation is reliable and durable. It is a reinforced concrete slab on which construction work is carried out in the future. For its preparation, reinforcement and concrete are used.
Usually the walls of a log house are assembled directly on the site.
At the corners, the bars are connected using one of 2 methods:
- with a ledge;
- without protrusion.
First, the crown of the strapping is laid on the already finished foundation. It needs to be connected in half a tree. This mounting option is used regardless of what type of connection was chosen for the other rows. The first floor of a log house should be about 3 m high.
When the walls are laid out to the required level, you need to put a ceiling and start designing the second floor, if such is planned.
Often, when erecting log houses, special sealing materials are used. It can be moss, felt or hemp. They are sold in small and convenient rolls, so it will be very easy and simple to cut them into separate ribbons.
When laying the floor, special attention should be paid to the insulating material. For this reason, such designs are made double. The selected insulation is laid out between two separate layers, which will also additionally soundproof the living space. Using an edged board, lay out the rough floor.
After finishing the construction of the floor and walls, you can proceed to the construction of the roof of the house. The simplest option in this situation is a gable structure, which you can build with your own hands without any problems.
For the Mauerlat of such a roof, it is worth using a bar of 150x150 mm and attaching it to the wall crown using brackets, special pins or anchors. The rafters must be placed so that they rest on the Mauerlat. Please note that in the sections of the supports, it is necessary to make triangular cuts so that all the elements interlock as reliably as possible. In houses made of wood, which in most cases give considerable shrinkage, it is not necessary to make recesses, since the displacement can lead to deformation of the existing structure. It is advisable to secure the rafters so that they can move. To do this, they usually turn to steel fasteners - special "sleds". Such parts consist of two parts, which make it possible for the rafter to change its angle during the shrinkage of the timber construction.
The rafter system for such dwellings should consist of the most reliable timber and be a frame basis. It sets the very shape of the roof and is assembled from duplicate parts. The angle of inclination, length, pitch and thickness of the rafters must be indicated in the building design. Most often, a bar is used, the width of which is from 150 to 180 mm, and the thickness is from 50 mm. The individual elements are fastened to each other using a tongue-and-groove locking system, as well as steel plates. As for raising the rafters to the required angle, special rafter legs are used here.
The finished rafter system is covered with a vapor barrier material. A counter-lattice and a crate are installed on top. The counter lattice is constructed from slats, the thickness of which is 2 cm. They are installed on the insulation along the rafters. The lathing must be nailed across the rafters. In this case, the pitch of the bars depends on the roofing material that you have chosen.
If you plan to equip the attic, then the roof is additionally insulated from the inside with slab materials, for example, mineral wool.
It is placed between the rafters.
Despite the fact that the interior decoration of a log house is not a prerequisite, it is worth figuring out what materials can be used for this.
Before proceeding with the interior design of such dwellings, it is necessary to plan for what purposes this or that room will be used. For example, if you are going to use a suburban building only on weekends or in the summer season, then you can save on insulating material. However, if you plan to permanently live in such a house, then it will have to be thoroughly insulated. We must not forget the waterproofing materials.
The interior decoration of such a structure should be started after interior design. In addition, you will need to carefully consider in which areas the sewerage, heating pipes and electrical networks will run. Having completed all the preliminary work, it will be possible to proceed directly to the interior decoration of the log house.
First you need to tackle the design of the floor. First, you will need to lay the rough floor using a two-layer decking. Installation of hydro and thermal insulation cannot be neglected. Then the boards are laid out on the floor. This process takes about 2 days on average. There are many ways to apply floor finishes. For example, you can lay materials using logs, or floor beams or solid foundations.
The optimal finishing option must be selected based on the characteristics of the building. Having installed the flooring, you will need to carry out grinding work using hand tools or special grinders. In addition, sandpaper of different grain sizes and levels of abrasiveness can be useful. Remember that the floor will also need to be insulated.
For finishing in such structures, it is recommended to choose polymer compositions, which are based on only one component. It is advisable to give preference to water mixtures. As for the floor, it can be decorated with almost any material. For example, it can be parquet, solid board, laminate, tile or carpet.
The ceiling in a log house can simply be left as it is and not subjected to additional processing. Otherwise, you should refer to the stretch ceiling or to the paint layer. Here you need to build on the taste preferences and desires of the owners of the home. Often, ceilings in log houses are decorated with a variety of decorative panels. Do not forget that these bases, like the attic, need high-quality insulation.
As for the interior decoration of walls in a house made of timber, then it is worth turning to special materials or high-quality plaster mixtures. Before applying them, it is very important to thoroughly sand the wooden surfaces, and then coat them with a primer and protective compounds.
The primer must be applied evenly and accurately to the walls of the timber. Thanks to such actions, it will be possible to lay the finishing layer as smooth and aesthetic as possible. Usually the topcoat consists of 2-3 layers.
Experts recommend using only natural compounds for the interior decoration of such structures.
Houses from a bar can be additionally insulated from the inside with mineral wool or foam. When laying such materials, it is very important to leave small gaps between the insulation themselves and the wooden walls. Typically, these coatings are fixed on a pre-prepared lathing and counter-lathing.
After sanding the walls and covering them with protective compounds, you can leave everything as it is, or turn to one or another cladding. As a rule, materials such as wall paneling, wallpaper or classic wood trim are chosen for this. If a room in such a house has a modest area, then it is better to give preference to lighter materials.
Tips & Tricks
If you plan to put a high-quality log house on your site, then it is recommended to purchase only those materials that were made in the winter season. There is a negligible amount of moisture in such products. In addition, such wood is not prone to blue discoloration.
If you want your log house to be filled with original interior details and arched structures, then you should use glued laminated timber. Very beautiful railings, stairs and window sills are obtained from it.
If you decide to build a garage from a bar with your own hands, then you should take into account one important nuance - in such rooms, competently performed ventilation plays one of the most important roles. If you take care of it, then the timber structure will last as long as possible and will not lose its visual appeal.
It is not recommended to choose plans and examples of houses in which there are too large windows. Please note that due to such components, heat losses can significantly increase, which will entail unnecessary heating costs.
To make a bay window in a log house, it is recommended to use glued beams. A very strong and stable structure will be obtained from this raw material.
Houses from a bar can be made in a variety of styles, but some of the most popular are:
Professionals say that it is impossible to put turnkey log houses. You must first give the structure time to shrink and only after that (after 5-6 months) start finishing work.
When self-assembling timber walls, it is important to take into account that the use of flax or tow does not prevent the formation of micro gaps and cracks in the base. This is due to the fact that such materials cannot provide a uniform layer. However, tape-type insulation is devoid of such disadvantages. It features uniform thickness and reliable needle-punched nonwoven fabric.
As for the interior decoration of the walls, you should not immediately proceed to applying paint. First, you should do a test color.
When choosing a particular color scheme, you should give preference to lighter shades, because they look much better and fresher.
In addition, they can be made darker if necessary.
Before proceeding to the construction of the foundation for a log house, you will need to carefully align the site and thoroughly clean it.
One or another type of foundation should be chosen based on the geological characteristics of the soil at the site. Usually, to determine the characteristics of the soil, people turn to special organizations. Of course, such services can be expensive, but you can easily choose a suitable base that will last as long as possible under the existing conditions.
Carry out all installation work in accordance with the project. You should not deviate from the plan so as not to face problems and incomprehensible situations.
You can decorate a log house throughout the year. However, it should be borne in mind that the temperature inside in winter should not be less than +15 degrees. When painting external timber walls, the outside air temperature should be at least + 5-7 degrees, and the humidity level should not be higher than 75-80%. If you want the paintwork to dry evenly and neatly, then you definitely need to monitor the temperature regime.
Do not neglect the treatment of the timber with protective antiseptic impregnations. Without proper care, such building materials will not last long and will quickly lose their original appearance.
You should not start building a log house on your own if you doubt your abilities. In this case, it is better to contact specialists who will deliver the structure quickly and easily.
From such an environmentally friendly material as timber, very beautiful and cozy houses are obtained.They can be done in a variety of colors. In addition, such dwellings often have a very original and unusual structure.
For example, from glued laminated timber, painted in dark brown, you get a wonderful two-story cottage with a gable roof trimmed with dark tiles. Near the window on the second floor, a small open balcony with a dark wooden fence will look good. It will be possible to dilute the gloomy colors of such a structure with lighter brown window frames, a lower crown of masonry and a tall pipe (stove or fireplace), also lined with stone. Near the front door, you should equip a small terrace with the same fence as on the balcony. Against this background, mahogany entrance doors will look organic.
Lumber houses look good without additional decoration. For example, a structure made of profiled material in 2 floors can be left uncovered, but supplemented with a rough roof with four slopes and roofing material in a contrasting dark brown or burgundy shade. The same roof should be supplemented with a canopy over the terrace with a wooden fence and supports. Such a small but aesthetic building can be surrounded by greenery and various decorative elements made of wood.
Typical one-story houses from a bar look no less attractive and organic. For example, it can be an unfinished structure with spectacular green tiles that will stand out sharply against the background of delicate wood. At the entrance to the house, a small terrace fenced with a contrasting white fence will look great. A gable canopy should be placed over this entrance area, complemented by the same green roof. It is better to paint the window frames white. The result is a very cozy and harmonious log house.
See the next video about mistakes in building a house from a bar.