Features of the design process of country frame houses
A one-story frame house is an excellent solution for those who like to relax outside the city in comfortable conditions. Anyone can arrange a warm and beautiful home with their own hands and inexpensively.
Advantages and disadvantages
The skeleton frame is very popular in all parts of the world.
It has a huge number of advantages.
- Environmental safety - only high-quality materials are used for construction, which are thoroughly checked and tested, and only after that they go on sale.
- Affordable cost - materials for the construction of houses using frame technology are cheaper than bricks and blocks. But it is also worth noting the cost savings when heating the building.
- Quick and easy installation - even one person can build a house on his own without the help of professionals and special equipment. Builders say that it is easier to build frame houses only by assembling houses from a constructor. If all the materials are available, the building can be erected in six months.
- Excellent thermal insulation - houses retain heat in the room for a long time and do not let cold in. Energy saving directly depends on proper ventilation, house insulation and decoration.
- Bio- and fire resistance - the wood is carefully coated with special agents that make the material resistant to parasites, insects and fire.
- Durability - frame houses can last more than 50 years.
- Beautiful appearance - such designs look great on the site, and even after several years they retain their aesthetics.
In addition to advantages, buildings erected using frame technology also have several main disadvantages.
- If the wood is not treated with a special agent, the fire hazard of the material immediately increases. Therefore, when buying wood, you must carefully follow all stages of its drying and processing.
- Compared to brick and block houses, frame houses are not as strong. But if you follow all the building rules and step-by-step instructions, then you don't have to worry that a hurricane will demolish the house.
- During construction, great attention must be paid to the ventilation system, because wood, impregnated with various substances, does not allow air to pass through well. Do not forget about the installation of additional noise insulation, this will increase the level of comfort in the room.
Among the three types of foundation - columnar, tape, pile-grillage - it is necessary to highlight the optimal one. The choice depends on the characteristics of the soil, the number of storeys of the building, climate and financial capabilities. The budget option is the pile foundation. Columnar foundations ensure the durability of the structure - on this basis, a house can stand for more than 100 years.
Columns can be from:
- ready-made concrete blocks;
- asbestos-cement pipes.
Asbestos-cement pipes may well play the role of formwork, which is subsequently poured with a concrete support. The depth to which the pipes are inserted depends on the characteristics of the soil.
Installing the frame
For additional stability of the building, the subfloor and the lower crown of the strapping are installed on the existing foundation. Only after that you can proceed with the installation of the frame itself, which can be either metal or wood.Experts recommend using hollow beams, in which case the load on the foundation is significantly reduced and money is saved. Vertical beams of the structure are mounted at the corners of the house, rooms, door and window openings at a distance of no more than 2-3 meters. Installation of cross beams and jibs is mandatory. If the house will have two floors, the frame must be additionally reinforced in the area where the stairs will be located. Window openings are also fastened with cross beams.
The roof frame must be made of lightweight materials, because too massive will give a large load on the foundation, which will negatively affect the stability and durability of the house. The roof of a house for a summer residence can be pitched and gable. The second type is appropriate when the attic space will be used as a living space. This solution is more economical than building a second floor. Depending on whether the attic will be residential, the height of the roof ridge beam is determined. The optimum height is up to 2.5 meters.
Boards on the slope are installed at a distance of 0.5 to 1 meter. To strengthen the structure, additional cross members are mounted. Only after the roofing process has been completed can the internal and external cladding begin. If a living space is planned in the attic, it is recommended to additionally insulate the roof slope and the floor-ceiling. For external cladding, you can choose any material: both metal tiles, and sheets of iron and slate.
After installing the frame, proceed with the internal cladding, as well as the installation of the walls and ceiling. If the house has two floors, a strong material with a large cross-section is selected for the ceiling beams and additional insulation of the floor-ceiling is performed. Often, drywall is used for ceiling cladding, which is lightweight and low cost.
If you plan to build a one-story house, then for the ceiling you will need:
- edged boards, for example, lining or grooved material, the thickness of which is about 25 mm, while it is best to choose boards from coniferous wood;
- moisture-proof and heat-insulating materials;
- foam for the installation of various elements;
- sheets of fiberboard, chipboard or drywall;
- other necessary building materials and tools.
When installing the ceiling in rooms with high humidity, use moisture resistant plasterboard. If the structure has two floors, the thickness of the board must be at least 30 mm.
As a rule, the walls are made of chipboard, fiberboard, drywall or fixed transverse beams or boards, which are insulated and prepared for finishing. The modern market offers ready-made wall panels, in which there is a pre-insulation material, as well as finishing details, openings for windows and doors. The cost of such a wall block is significantly higher, but they deserve only positive reviews, and also speed up the construction process. But it is difficult to install such blocks on your own, since they weigh a lot.
Installation of insulation is required at almost all stages of construction, except for the first - arrangement of the foundation.
Experienced professionals recommend using the following materials as insulation:
- expanded polystyrene - differs in affordable cost, but this material is not environmentally friendly and fire hazardous;
- mineral or stone wool in rolls or layers - is very popular, as it has good properties;
- ecowool impregnated against rodents and flammability - more technological, but more expensive than other materials.
Even if you use the most expensive and high-quality insulation materials, do not forget about moisture and vapor barrier materials that retain heat in the room and increase the life of the house.
A large selection of different projects allows everyone to choose the best one.The demanded sizes of houses are 6x6, 6x8 m, but there are also smaller structures - 4x4, 3x4 m. Often a typical project is chosen for a summer residence - a small house with two rooms and a small terrace. In addition to standard projects, there are also individual ones. They are ordered from a special company, or you can draw them yourself. For a small area, choose a compact building. In houses where no one will live in winter, it is not at all necessary to install a boiler or stove. But you still need to take care of thermal insulation, it will protect the house from freezing in winter.
The choice of a project depends not only on the preferences of the owners, but also on the characteristics of the site. You can choose an elongated or U-shaped house. If you have a car, do not forget to leave space for a garage or carport on the property. Often, the owners want to equip a bathhouse on the garden plot. It can be built independently using frame technology, or you can order a turnkey construction. If you have all the necessary tools available, and you also have a ready-made project, and you have at least a minimal idea of frame technology, you can easily cope with the construction of a country house on your own.
See in the video what gross mistakes the craftsmen make when building a frame house.